Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus acidophilus
"Lactobacillus acidophilus", Numbered ticks are 11 μm (micrometers)
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Numbered ticks are 11 μm
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species:
L. acidophilus
Binomial name
Lactobacillus acidophilus
(Moro 1900) Hansen & 1970
Lactobacillus acidophilus, electron micrograph

Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacillus') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic species, fermenting sugars into lactic acid, and grows readily at rather low pH values (below pH 5.0) and has an optimum growth temperature of around 37 °C (99 °F).[1] L. acidophilus occurs naturally in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract and mouth.[2] Some strains of L. acidophilus may be considered to have probiotic characteristics.[3] These strains are commercially used in many dairy products, sometimes together with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in the production of acidophilus-type yogurt, or acidophiline. Its genome has been sequenced.[4] Lactobacillus acidophilus was found, when fed to pigs, to lower serum cholesterol and raise the amount of cholesterol present in fecal matter. [5]

Vaginal microbiota

Lactobacillus acidophilus is part of the vaginal microbiota along with other species in the genus including Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners.[4][6][7][8] In lab experiments, L. acidophilus seemed to decrease Candida albicans’ ability to adhere to vaginal epithelial cells; however, L. acidophilus’ role in preventing yeast infections is unclear because this species of Lactobacilli has also been found not to have a very strong ability to adhere to (and thereby colonize) the vaginal cells.[9]

Side effects

Although probiotics are generally safe, when they are used by oral administration there is a small risk of passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood stream (bacteremia), which can cause adverse health consequences.[10] Some people, such as those with a compromised immune system, short bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, cardiac valve disease and premature infants, may be at higher risk for adverse events.[11] In children with lowered immune systems or who are already critically ill, consumption of probiotics may rarely cause bacteremia or fungemia, leading to sepsis, which is a potentially fatal disease.[12] Scant complaints of mild gastrointestinal discomfort or gas have been noted.[13]

Therapeutic applications

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a constituent in VSL#3. This proprietary, standardized, formulation of live bacteria may be used in combination with conventional therapies to treat ulcerative colitis.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ Bâati, L. ̈L.; Fabre-Gea, C.; Auriol, D.; Blanc, P. J. (2000). "Study of the cryotolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus: Effect of culture and freezing conditions on the viability and cellular protein levels". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 59 (3): 241–247. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00361-5. PMID 11020044.
  2. ^ "Bacteria Genomes – Lactobacillus acidophilus". European Bioinformatics Institute. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  3. ^ Ljungh A, Wadström T (2006). "Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics". Curr Issues Intest Microbiol. 7 (2): 73–89. PMID 16875422.
  4. ^ a b Fijan, Sabina (2014). "Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 11 (5): 4745–4767. doi:10.3390/ijerph110504745. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 4053917. PMID 24859749.
  5. ^ Maxwell, C.; Nelson, C. R.; Gilliland, S. E. (1985-02-01). "Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 49 (2): 377–381. ISSN 0099-2240. PMID 3920964.
  6. ^ Ratner, Adam J.; Aagaard, Kjersti; Riehle, Kevin; Ma, Jun; Segata, Nicola; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Coarfa, Cristian; Raza, Sabeen; Rosenbaum, Sean; Van den Veyver, Ignatia; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis; Petrosino, Joseph; Versalovic, James (2012). "A Metagenomic Approach to Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiome Signature in Pregnancy". PLoS ONE. 7 (6): e36466. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736466A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036466. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3374618. PMID 22719832.
  7. ^ Senok, Abiola C; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Botta, Giuseppe A; Senok, Abiola C (2009). "Probiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006289. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006289.pub2. PMID 19821358.
  8. ^ Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September–October 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases". Annali di Igiene. 25 (5): 443–56. doi:10.7416/ai.2013.1946. PMID 24048183.
  9. ^ Can Yogurt Prevent Yeast Infections?. Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
  10. ^ Durchschein F, Petritsch W, Hammer HF (2016). "Diet therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases: The established and the new". World J Gastroenterol (Review). 22 (7): 2179–94. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i7.2179. PMC 4734995. PMID 26900283.
  11. ^ Doron S, Snydman DR (2015). "Risk and safety of probiotics". Clin Infect Dis (Review). 60 Suppl 2: S129–34. doi:10.1093/cid/civ085. PMC 4490230. PMID 25922398.
  12. ^ Singhi SC, Kumar S (2016). "Probiotics in critically ill children". F1000Res (Review). 5: 407. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7630.1. PMC 4813632. PMID 27081478.
  13. ^ "Lactobacillus acidophilus". Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Consumer Version. Medline Plus. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  14. ^ Ghouri, Yezaz A; Richards, David M; Rahimi, Erik F; Krill, Joseph T; Jelinek, Katherine A; DuPont, Andrew W (9 December 2014). "Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in inflammatory bowel disease". Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 7: 473–487. doi:10.2147/CEG.S27530. PMC 4266241. PMID 25525379.

External links