Fermented milk products

Dadiah is a traditional fermented milk of West Sumatra, Indonesia prepared with fresh, raw, and unheated buffalo milk

Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf life of the product while enhancing its taste and improving the digestibility of its milk. There is evidence that fermented milk products have been produced since around 10,000 BC.[1] A range of different Lactobacilli strains has been grown in laboratories allowing for many cultured milk products with different flavors and characteristics.


Many different types of cultured milk products can be found around the world including milk, cheese, yogurt, other cultured dairy foods, ice cream and more.[2]

Soured milk

Country/region of origin Product(s)
acidophilus milk
Armenia matzoon
Arab World leben, kishk
Central Asia chal/shubat, chalap, kumis, qatyq, qurt, suzma
Bulgaria kiselo mlyako
Czech Republic kefír or
Denmark kærnemælk, tykmælk, and ymer
Dominican Republic Boruga
Estonia soured milk and kefir
Finland piimä and viili
Germany Sauermilch or Dickmilch (soured milk or thickened milk), Quark
Georgia matsoni
Greece or (ξινόγαλα), ariani (αριάνι), kefiri (κεφίρι)
Hungary aludttej, joghurt, kefir, tejföl
Iceland skyr and
India dahi, lassi, chaas, mattha, mishti doi and shrikhand
Indonesia dadiah
Iran doogh, kashk, ghara
Kurdistan Region
Middle East leben
Japan calpis
Latvia rūgušpiens, kefīrs, ,
Lithuania rūgpienis, kefyras
Mexico jocoque
Mongolia airag, byaslag, ,
Netherlands karnemelk (buttermilk)
Nicaragua leche agria (soured milk)
Norway surmelk or kulturmelk, kefir, and tjukkmjølk[3]
Pakistan dahi and lassi
Poland soured milk (including "acidofilne" milk), kefir, buttermilk, twaróg
Romania , , kefir and
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus kefir, prostokvasha, ryazhenka, varenets, tvorog, acidophiline
Scotland blaand
Serbia and yogurt
Slovakia kefír or
South Africa amasi (maas in Afrikaans)
Sweden filmjölk, and (fil is the short form of filmjölk)
Turkic countries ayran, qatiq, kefir, yogurt, kımız
United States clabber
Bosnia and Herzegovina and kefir
Burundi urubu
Kenya Kule Naoto, Maziwa Lala, Mursik,
Ethiopia ergo
Sudan rob

Soured cream

Country/region of origin Product(s)
sour cream
Central Asia kaymak
Central & Eastern Europe; and Russia smetana
Croatia /
France crème fraîche
Hungary tejföl
Mexico crema/
Romania smântână
Serbia kisela pavlaka

Comparison chart

Product Alternative names Typical milkfat content Typical shelf life at 4 °C Fermentation agent Description
Cheese 1-75% varies a variety of bacteria or mold Any number of solid fermented milk products.
Crème fraîche creme fraiche 30-40% 10 days[1] naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria in cream Mesophilic fermented cream, originally from France; higher-fat variant of sour cream
Cultured sour cream sour cream 14–40%[citation needed] 4 weeks[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*[4] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized cream with an acidity of at least 0.5%. Rennet extract may be added to make a thicker product.[4] Lower fat variant of crème fraîche
Filmjölk fil 0.1-4.5% 10–14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis* and Leuconostoc[5][6] Mesophilic fermented milk, originally from Scandinavia
Yogurt yoghurt, yogourt, yoghourt 0.5–4% 35–40 days[1] Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus[4] Thermophilic fermented milk, cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
Kefir kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, milkkefir, búlgaros 0-4% 10–14 days[1] Kefir grains, a mixture of bacteria and yeasts A fermented beverage, originally from the Caucasus region, made with kefir grains; can be made with any sugary liquid, such as milk from mammals, soy milk, or fruit juices
Kumis koumiss, kumiss, kymys, kymyz, airag, chigee 4%? 10–14 days[1] Lactobacilli and yeasts A carbonated fermented milk beverage traditionally made from horse milk
Viili filbunke 0.1-3.5% 14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis* biovar. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Geotrichum candidum[7] Mesophilic fermented milk that may or may not contain fungus on the surface; originally from Sweden; a Finnish specialty[7]
Cultured buttermilk 1–2% 10 days[1] Lactococcus lactis*[4] (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris)[1] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized milk
Acidophilus milk acidophilus cultured milk 0.5-2% 2 weeks[1] Lactobacillus acidophilus[1][4] Thermophilic fermented milk, often lowfat (2%, 1.5%) or nonfat (0.5%), cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus

* Streptococcus lactis has been renamed to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis[8]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
  2. ^ "Dairy Foods & Beverages | Dairy Foods".
  3. ^ Amilien, Virginie; Torjusen, Hanne; Vittersø, Gunnar (2005-05-04). "From local food to terroir product ? - Some views about Tjukkmjølk, the traditional thick sour milk from Røros, Norway". Anthropology of Food (4). Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Newer Knowledge of Dairy Foods: Other: Kinds of Other Dairy Foods". National Dairy Council. Archived from the original on September 25, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  5. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  6. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  7. ^ a b "Viili: the Finnish specialty" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals. 2003 (2): 4–5. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-30.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Schleifer KH, Kraus J, Dvorak C, Kilpper-Balz R, Collins MD, Fischer W (1985). "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related streptococci to the. genus Lactococcus gen. nov". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6 (2): 183–195. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(85)80052-7. ISSN 0723-2020.

External links