E number E218; Tegosept; Mycocten
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E218 (preservatives)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||152.149 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Colorless crystals or white crystalline powder |
|UV-vis (λmax)||255 nm (methanol)|
|Methyl salicylate (ortho isomer)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Methylparaben is an anti-fungal agent often used in a variety of cosmetics and personal-care products. It is also used as a food preservative and has the E number E218.
Methylparaben is commonly used as a fungicide in Drosophila food media. To Drosophila, methylparaben is toxic at higher concentrations, has an estrogenic effect (mimicking estrogen in rats and having anti-androgenic activity), and slows the growth rate in the larval and pupal stages at lower concentrations.
There is controversy about whether methylparaben or propylparabens are harmful at concentrations typically used in body care or cosmetics. Methylparaben and propylparaben are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the USFDA for food and cosmetic antibacterial preservation. Methylparaben is readily metabolized by common soil bacteria, making it completely biodegradable.
Methylparaben is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract or through the skin. It is hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and rapidly excreted in urine without accumulating in the body. Acute toxicity studies have shown that methylparaben is practically non-toxic by both oral and parenteral administration in animals. In a population with normal skin, methylparaben is practically non-irritating and non-sensitizing; however, allergic reactions to ingested parabens have been reported. A 2008 study found no competitive binding for human estrogen and androgen receptors for methylparaben, but varying levels of competitive binding were seen with butyl- and isobutyl-paraben. 
- "Methylparaben Experimental Properties". PubChem.
- "Semiochemical - me-4-hydroxybenzoate". pherobase.com.
- Gu W, Xie DJ, Hour XW (2009). "Toxicity and Estrogen Effects of Methyl Paraben on Drosophila melanogaster". Food Science. 30 (1): 252–254.
- Sun L, Yu T, Guo J, Zhang Z, Hu Y, Xiao X, Sun Y, Xiao H, Li J, Zhu D, Sai L, Li J (April 2016). "The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats". Scientific Reports. 6: 25173. doi:10.1038/srep25173. PMC 4848538. PMID 27121550.
- "Parabens". Food and Drug Administration.
- Soni MG, Taylor SL, Greenberg NA, Burdock GA (October 2002). "Evaluation of the health aspects of methyl paraben: a review of the published literature". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40 (10): 1335–73. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00107-2. PMID 12387298.
- No authors listed (2008). "Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products". Int J Toxicol. 27 (Suppl 4): 1–82. doi:10.1080/10915810802548359. PMID 19101832.
- Handa O, Kokura S, Adachi S, Takagi T, Naito Y, Tanigawa T, Yoshida N, Yoshikawa T (October 2006). "Methylparaben potentiates UV-induced damage of skin keratinocytes". Toxicology. 227 (1–2): 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.07.018. PMID 16938376.
- Okamoto Y, Hayashi T, Matsunami S, Ueda K, Kojima N (August 2008). "Combined activation of methyl paraben by light irradiation and esterase metabolism toward oxidative DNA damage". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21 (8): 1594–9. doi:10.1021/tx800066u. PMID 18656963.