Draft:Albumin transport function analysis by EPR spectroscopy

Albumin transport function analysis by EPR spectroscopy (Albumin Transport Analysis test, ATA-test [1]) is the in vitro blood test that detects changes to the transport function and molecular conformation of serum albumin using the method of EPR spectroscopy. The test is used for diagnosis of cancer, sepsis and toxemia.

Principle of the method

The test is based on the investigation of the interaction of spin-labeled fatty acids with serum albumin by means of EPR spectroscopy [1] [2] [3] [4] [5].

In the method a sample of blood serum is investigated, to which a spin probe 16-doxyl stearate is added. Spin probe molecules bind specifically to albumin molecules where they occupy two main positions: (1) in the primary binding sites located in albumin domains, where their mobility is restricted, and (2) in the relatively spacious hydrophobic area between the protein domains in the interior the albumin globule. The spin probe molecules bound on albumin have a restricted mobility that results with a change to EPR spectrum, which reflects characteristics the protein site where the spin probe is located and allow estimating the conformation of albumin globule. Some part of the spin probe remains in the serum in the unbound state. The ratio of the fractions of the bound and unbound spin probe allows estimating the functional activity of albumin molecules. Thus analysis of the EPR spectrum allows assessment the conformation and functional activity of albumin molecules.

The test material is 100 µl serum or plasma.

The study procedure includes mixing a serum sample with a spin probe reagent, incubating the mixture, measuring the EPR spectrum of a serum with a spin probe, and analyzing the EPR spectrum with calculating the conformation and functional indicators of albumin molecules.

For cancer diagnosis

A specific change to the conformation of albumin molecules [4] [6] [7] [8] that is associated with the growth of a malignant tumor is diagnosed, which is caused by (or associated with) changes in the composition of metabolites carried by serum albumin during the growth of a malignant tumor [9] [10] (proliferating cancer cells uptake and release metabolites in abnormal quantities).

Clinical studies of the EPR test of serum albumin [4] [8] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] showed diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 90 %.

Clinical applications:

  • as a screening test to detect cancer-specific metabolic alterations in patients;
  • to determine whether the cancer growth has stopped or the disease is progressing;
  • to determine when cancer treatment is effective or needs to be changed.

For diagnosis of sepsis and toxemia

Reduced functional activity of serum albumin (reduced binding efficacy) is diagnosed, which is associated with toxemia (an increase in the concentration of toxic molecules in the blood) and is manifested before other clinical symptoms.

Clinical application of the Albumin transport function analysis:

References

  1. ^ a b c Sytov, A.; Davidova, T.; Muravsky, V.; Krasnova, L.; Bezmelnitsyna, L.; Vorobiev, P. (2013-11-01). "Economical Justification of the Innovation Method of Laboratory Diagnostic of the Structural and Functional Changes of Serum Albumin in Septic Complications (Ata-Test)". Value in Health. 16 (7): A364. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2013.08.242. ISSN 1098-3015.
  2. ^ "Albumin Transport Capacity Test" (PDF). www.albutran.by. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  3. ^ "In Vitro Method for Detection of the Presence or Absence of Developing Malignant Tumors" (PDF).
  4. ^ a b c Davydova T.V., Matveyeva I.I., Pogosyan N.R. et all. (2017). "Significance of blood serum albumin in laboratory diagnostics of ovarian carcinoma and predicting post-surgical complications". European journal of natural history. No. 6: 27–29.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b Kalachyk, A.; Ugolev, I.; Zabello, T.; Voitovich, V. (2014). "Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy of Albumin Transport Quality Is a New Test for Diagnosis of Kidney Transplant Acute Rejection.: Abstract# A232". Transplantation. 98: 466. doi:10.1097/00007890-201407151-01549. ISSN 0041-1337.
  6. ^ V.Muravsky, A.Gurachevsky, G.Matthes (2007). "Disease-specific albumin patterns defined by electron spin resonance". Tumor Biol. 28 (suppl. 1). ISSN 1423-0380.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Kazmierczak, S. C.; Gurachevsky, A.; Matthes, G.; Muravsky, V. (2006-09-21). "Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy of Serum Albumin: A Novel New Test for Cancer Diagnosis and Monitoring". Clinical Chemistry. 52 (11): 2129–2134. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2006.073148. ISSN 0009-9147.
  8. ^ a b Davydova T.V., Matveyeva I.I., Pogosyan N.R., Borisenko N.N., Kornyushenko U.A. (2017). "Significance of functional characteristic of blood serum albumin in laboratory diagnostics of ovarian carcinoma and predicting post-surgical complications". European journal of natural history. 6: 27–29. ISSN 2073-4972.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Lance A. Liotta, Emanuel F. Petricoin, David A. Fishman, Vincent Fusaro, Mark S. Lowenthal, Sally Ross. (2003). "Biomarker Amplification by Serum Carrier Protein Binding".CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Lowenthal, M. S. (2005-10-01). "Analysis of Albumin-Associated Peptides and Proteins from Ovarian Cancer Patients". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (10): 1933–1945. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2005.052944. ISSN 0009-9147.
  11. ^ Liu, Zhongchao; Zhang, Wenyi; Fan, Saijun; Wang, Liang; Jiao, Ling (2013). "Changes in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of albumin-associated spin-labeled stearic acid as a diagnostic parameter of colorectal cancer". World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 11 (1): 223. doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-223. ISSN 1477-7819. PMC 3847074. PMID 24025321.
  12. ^ Seidel P, Gurachevsky A, Muravsky V, Schnurr K, Seibt G, Matthes G (2005). "Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin". Z. Med. Phys. 15: 265–272.
  13. ^ Gurachevsky, Andrey; Muravskaya, Ekaterina; Gurachevskaya, Tatjana; Smirnova, Lena; Muravsky, Vladimir (2007). "Cancer-Associated Alteration in Fatty Acid Binding to Albumin Studied by Spin-Label Electron Spin Resonance". Cancer Investigation. 25 (6): 378–383. doi:10.1080/07357900701407947. ISSN 0735-7907.
  14. ^ Gelos, Marcos; Hinderberger, Dariush; Welsing, Ellen; Belting, Julia; Schnurr, Kerstin; Mann, Benno (2010). "Analysis of albumin fatty acid binding capacity in patients with benign and malignant colorectal diseases using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy". International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 25 (1): 119–127. doi:10.1007/s00384-009-0777-0. ISSN 0179-1958.
  15. ^ Gurachevsky, Andrey; Kazmierczak, Steven C.; Jörres, Achim; Muravsky, Vladimir (2008-01-01). "Application of spin label electron paramagnetic resonance in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and sepsis". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 46 (9). doi:10.1515/CCLM.2008.260. ISSN 1437-4331.
  16. ^ Maximilian Moergel, Peer W. Kämmerer, Kerstin Schnurr et all. "Spin electron paramagnetic resonance of albumin for diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)". ResearchGate.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Vorobiev P, Bezmelnitsyna L, Krasnova L, Muravsky V, Davidova T, Sytov A (2013). "Economical Justification of the Innovation Method of Laboratory Diagnostic of the Structural and Functional Changes of Serum Albumin in Septic Complications (Ata-Test)". Value in Health. 16: A364.
  18. ^ a b U. Murauski, A. Kalachuk, T. Ivanets (2015). "Detoxifying activity of serum albumin demonstrated diagnostic utility in patients with kidney transplant dysfunction and pregnant women with preeclampcia". Clinical chemistry. 10: S4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ A. Kalachyk, I. Ugolev, T. Zabello, E. Oganova, V. Muravsky (2014-01-01). "Electron spin resonance spectroscopy of serum albumin is a novel test for diagnosis of the kidney transplant acute rejection". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 52 (Supplement). doi:10.1515/cclm-2014-4035. ISSN 1437-4331.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Category:Medical diagnosis Category:Cancer research